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There's No Sugarcoating the Problems of Type 2 Diabetes

High blood sugar can have serious health consequences. But it's one health condition you have the power to prevent or possibly reverse.

Blood glucose meter with fruit, whole grains, a dumbell and a measuring tapeWe've long been warned of the dangers of too much sugar. The United States Department of Agriculture dietary guidelines have recommended limiting sugar since 1979 — well before the plate, pyramid or even the food wheel made an appearance.

We're not as aware of the dangers of too much blood sugar, a problem that one-third of the American adult population has, most without any knowledge of their condition. But much like the sugar in your diet, the sugar in your blood is completely under your control.

High blood sugar means you're at risk for diabetes — or you already have it.

Diabetes is a commonly-known condition, of which type 2 diabetes is the most common. More than 90 percent of adults who have high blood sugar have type 2 diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Because of the increased levels of sugar in your blood, your cells stop responding normally to insulin. The sugar stays in your blood instead of reaching your cells and converting into energy.

Over 11 percent of adults in Iowa have diabetes, a number that trends with the national average. An even greater number — 35.4 percent — have prediabetes, meaning their blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes.

Prediabetes usually shows no symptoms, hiding the serious condition from a third of Iowans. You usually don't know you have prediabetes until it progresses and you notice the signs of type 2 diabetes:

  • You pee a lot, especially at night.
  • You're always hungry, thirsty and tired.
  • You can lose weight without even trying.
  • You're prone to infections.
  • Sores and bruises don't heal as quickly as they used to.
  • Your skin is dry.
  • Your vision is a little blurry.
  • Your hands and feet are numb and tingly.

These symptoms develop slowly, sometimes over years. So your high blood sugar can wreak havoc on your body without you realizing, quietly doubling your risk of heart disease and stroke. It can also put you in danger of nerve, eye or kidney damage, serious infections that require amputation, hearing impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

Eating too much sugar is not the cause of high blood sugar.

It sounds simple. A diet high in sugar leads to blood high in glucose. There is a connection, but the causes of type 2 diabetes are more complex.

Eating a lot of sugar is a sign of a poor diet. And poor nutrition can make you overweight or obese. The additional pounds and continued sugar consumption make it more difficult for your body to regulate your blood sugar and leads to insulin resistance. As a result, your pancreas produces insulin, but the muscle, liver and fat cells can no longer absorb it and convert it to energy properly.

In addition to weight and insulin resistance, you have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if:

  • You're over 45.
  • You already have high blood sugar at prediabetes levels.
  • Your mom, dad, brother or sister has type 2 diabetes.
  • You live a sedentary lifestyle, exercising less than three times a week.
  • You had gestational diabetes during pregnancy or your mother had it when you were born.
  • One of your children weighed more than nine pounds at birth.
  • You're African American, Hispanic, Native American or Alaska Native.

Your age, genetics and heritage are out of your control. But things you can control, like your eating and exercise habits, are proven to prevent type 2 diabetes.

Both prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes are in your hands.

So you check a few boxes on the list of risk factors. That doesn't mean you're destined to get type 2 diabetes. It's a highly preventable disease. Even if you're already prediabetic, you can reverse that and return your blood sugar to normal levels.

You don't have to take extreme measures to do so. Losing five to seven percent of your body fat can make a big difference. You can shed that excess fat with relatively simple changes to your lifestyle:

  • Eat a balanced diet. Follow the USDA guidelines and eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, protein and whole grains, and low in sugar and fat.
  • Reduce portion sizes. Eat smaller portions of healthy foods to stay at or below the daily recommended amount of calories. Check the USDA calorie needs for your age, sex and physical activity level.
  • Get out and move. A sedentary lifestyle is a big factor in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Aim for at least 30 minutes of physical activity five days a week. To lose weight and keep it off, up to 60 minutes a day is recommended.
  • Take your time. Quick diets and intense fitness programs can help you shed pounds. But you risk injury or gaining back weight after the program's end. For sustained success, make gradual changes to your diet and slowly build up your activity and intensity.

If you do get a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, the same techniques can help you lose weight and reduce blood glucose levels. Your primary care provider can help you develop a plan to manage your weight and condition. It's possible to manage type 2 diabetes with lifestyle changes alone. Your provider may also recommend additional treatments:

  • Blood glucose monitoring – Keeping a watchful eye on your blood sugar is the only way to make sure it is within the target range.
  • Insulin therapy – When type 2 diabetes affects your body's production of insulin, you have to ease the pressure on the pancreas by regularly injecting yourself with insulin and regulate your blood sugar.
  • Medication – Many medications help manage your disease and symptoms. Depending on your condition and other health issues, you may get medicine that lowers glucose production, increase insulin secretion or reduce blood sugar levels.

Test your blood sugar to see if you have diabetes or prediabetes.

Everyone's risk factors are different. But if you live in Iowa, statistics show you have a 1 in 3 chance of having high blood sugar. If you think you're at risk or you've noticed symptoms of type 2 diabetes, talk to your doctor about testing.

The A1C test is used to diagnose type 2 diabetes. It measures how much sugar is covering the hemoglobin in your blood and indicates your average blood sugar level over the last few months.

  • Normal: Less than 5.7%
  • Prediabetes: Between 5.7% and 6.4%
  • Type 2 diabetes: 6.5% or higher

With the results of an A1C test and the recognition of symptoms or confirmation by additional testing, your provider can make a diagnosis and develop a treatment plan that helps you normalize your blood sugar.

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